عنوان مقاله [English]
In different ages of history, Iranian life has been affected by various thoughts and governments which have shown their reflection in many areas. In this regard, the Mongol invasion in the 7th century deeply and steadily changed the base of life in Iran. Of course, Mongol invasions in other Asian countries, such as China, also influenced, and besides having social and political effects, altered the artworks.
Throughout history, Iran and China have had artistic and cultural interactions together, However, one of the most effective relationships has been established by the Mongol government and the Patriarch. China, although has used enrichment art in various ages, has been affected by ancient Iranian art, especially in the Achaemenids and Sasanian ages in his works, the in the Patriarch age some of the art marks with China technics returned to Iran. In this regard, Iran’s painting after Islam came into it, was declined illustration, when Mongolian came to power and initiated the new age.
This article studied the affecting agents of Chinese painting (especially horse pictures) in the Yuan Age on Iran in the Patriarch Age which arose from art and cultural interactions between them by using patterns. In this regard, first, we must know what cultural agents or visual elements have influenced to Patriarch Age’s painting. And whether this effect has been a mere pattern or in some situations it has been implemented and adopted or whether all concepts have been used the same?
We know art enrichment in both China and Iran has life to the extent of history length. Along with political and commercial relations, the art in these two countries has affected each other. But in the Patriarch age, this art heritage returned to Iran with Chinese technique. Results of these effects have been seen at first in book paintings. One of the bureaus related to the work of Iranian artists is Ibn Bakhtishoe’s Manafe Al-heyvan. This book has 94 pictures within painting methods of Abbasid painting methods, style-painting of Iranian designers and Chinese painting has been collected all together. The Shah-Nameh of Demoth and Javame Al-Tavarikh books are graphic books within Chinese painting effects that have been seen because of the presence of a Chinese designer in Patriarch Darbar. Of course, because of the Mongol invasion of China, deep changes also occurred in the Chinese painting style and led to artists being dissociable. Painter literature and individual issues were replaced with mere naturalism.
Regarding relations between Iran and China in the Patriarch Age, the art in the two countries has been affected for the third time by interactions during civilization history. After Islam, painting declined because of the prohibition of portrait painting and imagination in Iran. Painting was forgotten more than other arts. After the Mongol invasion, in addition to entering artworks by traders, artists also traveled, which led to them contributing to the book’s painting and raising it in the Patriarch age. Although Iranian artists have tried to make Iranian-Islamic traces in their works, patterning of design and concepts or forms of Chinese painting in these works was inescapable.
The cultural connection between Iranian and Chinese cultures in the epic story of Shah-Nameh has resulted in a homogenization of their respective issues. The Mongol invasion of China led artists to address political and social issues, in addition to avoiding the royal court. They did not choose nature as a safe topic for their works and used the image of a horse attack in a harsh natural setting. The issues were epic due to their connection to nature, and they were executed uniquely.
In Iranian designs, horse imagery has become more prevalent, possibly influenced by the Seljuk period. Meanwhile, horse anatomy has influenced Chinese designs, manifesting in diverse ways. For example, one can show the rotation of the white horse body in the Alexander and Dragon fight picture. Figure faces usually have three facets, and their eye and ulcer profiles are Mongolian and Chinese clouds pictures observed very well.
In the remaining books from that era, such as Javame Al-Tavarikh, most of the illustrations have been influenced by Chinese painting.
In this regard, one can point to the soil colors and largo of pen, high flown state of hills, weir, and horizontal pictures similar to Chinese roll pictures. Also, emphasis on moving along with equitation in the limited space fight, presence of traditional elements including golden sky, sparsity of tree’s stem and leaf, breaking the picture frame with horse’s leg, and riding a flag is the special technique of Mongol designers in 730 AH. Although circled saddle and golden cloths are shown since the middle of the hejiri 8th century, but circled shield of the helmet ears are indications of the end of the 7,8 centuries.